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Many of our readers have been bullied out of a job.Photograph: Blend Images/Alamy We might not frequent playgrounds at lunch anymore, but that does not mean we have left everything reminiscent of those times behind.
Call someone a bully, and usually the image evoked is a mean kid ruling the playground with the brute force of his fists, or a cruel girl with a sharp tongue to inflict more pain than a fist ever could Bullying isn't just a middle-school thing and it is NOT “A RIGHT OF PASSAGE” Choose three volunteers who want to write and give each a piece of cardstock..Call someone a bully, and usually the image evoked is a mean kid ruling the playground with the brute force of his fists, or a cruel girl with a sharp tongue to inflict more pain than a fist ever could.
And while bullies grow up, they don't always change.That girl who relied on gossip and put-downs to get ahead? She might sit in the cubicle next to yours.That guy that took pleasure in picking on those weaker than him? He might sit in the big corner office .That guy that took pleasure in picking on those weaker than him? He might sit in the big corner office.Bullying in the workplace is on the rise, according to research, yet few companies have policies in place to deal with this "silent epidemic".
Those that do often fail to carry them out properly.To get at the human problem behind the statistics of workplace bullying, we asked Guardian readers to share with us their experience with a bully, whether it be coworker, a boss or a client.The responses that came in were often difficult to read.There were stories of verbal abuse – a coworker picking on a reader because of her weight, making elephant noises every time she walked by; a reader who would wake screaming after dreams of a workplace he left years ago because of bullying.
It was clear the odds were against them.
There were readers who attempted to get their workplace to intervene – only to find themselves shut out and pushed out.Some were fired, while others quit on their own unable to bear their hostile workplace environment anymore.Only a few met with success of having their bully thwarted.Stephanie, 31, Worcestershire, UK Paul, 45, Toronto, Canada I came to understand about workplace harassment after being hired by a US firm to create a tool for them to help them address workplace behaviour and employee feedback.
They were, in hindsight, very forward thinking.By doing the project, I discovered from conversations a family member had experienced this issue and that, in fact, I might even have been quite close to being a bully myself at one stage of my life.I was definitely an a**hole (if you get my term).LB, 62, Berkeley, California My bully was a co-worker.I left my former department, partially because I was offered a more interesting job, but partially, to get away from him.
Management just buried their heads in the sand.Their attitude was: "As long as we're making money, we don't care how people treat each other." Ellodie, 27, Oxford, UK Worked in a catering outlet as a server.After letting slip that I had a girlfriend was called any number of anti-gay names, while a co-worker joked that if he'd known me at school he would have beaten me up every day.
When I reacted with shock, I was alienated by everyone – as the one who had destroyed the banter.After I complained to management, my advancement through the company suddenly stopped, as did my training – I was stuck dishwashing for months until I eventually quit.Michele, 48, Houston, Texas I was bullied by a co-worker, then by my boss, who was his fraternity brother.This didn't end there but turned into a full-blown sexual harassment issue, military style.Thought I could trust my boss and all he did was laugh it off.
Laura, 36, London, UK We have a terrible problem with bullying where I work.Ironically, one of the things we do at my organisation is advise other offices on how best to deal with bullying .Lisa, 27, Chard, Somerset, UK I have been bullied pretty much in every job I've ever had.I hate bullying and would never actively bully anyone myself.I have stood up to bullies in the past, which has resulted in them leaving me alone.
But being bullied by management is really hard to stand up to, which has resulted in me leaving a job.I used to find it very upsetting, being bullied.Now that I'm older, I've learnt to ignore it.I now understand that people bully others due to their own insecurities.Usually because they are jealous of you or because they feel like you are competition that is likely to win.
JW, 33, Burbank, California After working happily in the same workplace for 10 years, I got a new admin who liked to micromanage me and verbally assault me whenever possible.After one year of nonstop abuse, I brought in the union which helped the situation, but the bullying didn't stop.I put in for a transfer, because her harassment was causing me so much stress.The bully has since been promoted within the company but will not be at my office.In larger organizations, it's usually common knowledge who the bullies are.They make life miserable for their co-workers.However, they seem to either charm or scare management out of firing them, even if it leads to lower productivity, and good employees jumping ship.Jack, 37, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania We have several union members which bully other union members to do certain jobs which are assigned to everyone, but are highly undesirable.
We also have bullying when it comes to overtime.Effectively, the bullies are cheating others out of money … Some bullies here lie, distort and tell half-truths.Unfortunately, as a union job, removing these individuals is next to impossible and our management is slow to recognize the bullying, if they recognize it at all.Conrad, 41, Torvizcon, Spain One time I interjected when a co-worker was being bullied – I simply asked if the male manager had been a bully at school also.This stopped the bully from continuing or acting up whenever I was around.
Catriona, 21, Argyll, Scotland I have worked in a place where the boss was controlling and manipulative.
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Big in every sense and knew how to use that to make employees feel small and stupid.The problem was it was his company, so there was no-one to complain to.Six weeks was more than long enough for me there, as I regularly came home in tears Best website to write college paper bullying at an affordable price British Academic College Sophomore 6 hours.
Six weeks was more than long enough for me there, as I regularly came home in tears.
Bullies can bring even a grown adult to tears.
Photograph: I Love Images/Corbis Anne, 25, Ireland I was bullied by my boss.She and my co-worker would whisper, go out together for lunch and not invite me, laugh at each other's jokes and stare dumbly when I would try to join in – all the petty ways to make you feel small and stupid.She would also hold private meetings with me where she would attack my character, my ability and my performance.Sometimes she would ask me to do something and then criticise me for doing it, trying to say she'd never asked me do that task.I suffered extreme anxiety and would dread returning to work the moment I left.
I doubted my abilities and felt like I was going crazy, and sought counselling.It was only when I met my predecessor by chance that I realised she'd done this before and it wasn't my fault.I confronted her calmly and handed her a copy of my grievances and it really marked a turning point in my life.Terry, 56, Roseville, California I said something to the VP about my manager belittling me and her condescending comments.He told me she was not going anywhere, she was too valuable so I needed to decide what I was going to do.
Jay, 31, Newcastle, England I'm autistic so bullying for me is nothing new, at work as I struggle to make friends I'm often alone so an easy target.My last job was in a call centre, it was like being in school again.A particular group would continually whisper in front of me then look at me and laugh, they'd spread rumours, give me dirty looks, and even throw spit-balls.We were in our 20s in an office environment, it was pathetic, and the sort of bullying where it wasn't clear enough to be able to log a complaint.My worst bullying was the job before this, I absolutely adored my job and had loads of friends, but the bullying forced me to leave.
Bullying when you're an adult is different, it's more subtle and political so often you're left unsure of how to stop it – reporting bullying can often risk your job so you just have to suffer in silence and hope things change or you can find a better job.Topics The Problem of Bullying in Schools There is new concern about school violence, and police have assumed greater responsibility for helping school officials ensure students' safety.As pressure increases to place officers in schools, police agencies must decide how best to contribute to student safety.Will police presence on campuses most enhance safety? If police cannot or should not be on every campus, can they make other contributions to student safety? What are good approaches and practices? Perhaps more than any other school safety problem, bullying affects students' sense of security.The most effective ways to prevent or lessen bullying require school administrators' commitment and intensive effort; police interested in increasing school safety can use their influence to encourage schools to address the problem.
This guide provides police with information about bullying in schools, its extent and its causes, and enables police to steer schools away from common remedies that have proved ineffective elsewhere, and to develop ones that will work.† † Why should police care about a safety problem when others, such as school administrators, are better equipped to address it? One can find numerous examples of safety problems regarding which the most promising part of the police role is to raise awareness and engage others to effectively manage the problems.For example, in the case of drug dealing in privately owned apartment complexes, the most effective police strategy is to educate property owners and managers in effective strategies so they can reduce their property's vulnerability to drug markets.Bullying is widespread and perhaps the most underreported safety problem on American school campuses.1 Contrary to popular belief, bullying occurs more often at school than on the way to and from there.
Once thought of as simply a rite of passage or relatively harmless behavior that helps build young people's character, bullying is now known to have long-lasting harmful effects, for both the victim and the bully.Bullying is often mistakenly viewed as a narrow range of antisocial behavior confined to elementary school recess yards.In the United States, awareness of the problem is growing, especially with reports that in two-thirds of the recent school shootings (for which the shooter was still alive to report), the attackers had previously been bullied."In those cases, the experience of bullying appeared to play a major role in motivating the attacker."2,† † It is important to note that while bullying may be a contributing factor in many school shootings, it is not the cause of the school shootings.
International research suggests that bullying is common at schools and occurs beyond elementary school; bullying occurs at all grade levels, although most frequently during elementary school.It occurs slightly less often in middle schools, and less so, but still frequently, in high schools.†† High school freshmen are particularly vulnerable.†† For an excellent review of bullying research up through 1992, see Farrington (1993).Dan Olweus, a researcher in Norway, conducted groundbreaking research in the 1970s exposing the widespread nature and harm of school bullying.
3 Bullying is well documented in Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand, providing an extensive body of information on the problem.Research from some countries has shown that, without intervention, bullies are much more likely to develop a criminal record than their peers,††† and bullying victims suffer psychological harm long after the bullying stops.††† As young adults, former school bullies in Norway had a fourfold increase in the level of relatively serious, recidivist criminality (Olweus 1992).Dutch and Australian studies also found increased levels of criminal behavior by adults who had been bullies (Farrington 1993; Rigby and Slee 1999).Definition of Bullying repeated harmful acts and an imbalance of power.
It involves repeated physical, verbal or psychological attacks or intimidation directed against a victim who cannot properly defend him- or herself because of size or strength, or because the victim is outnumbered or less psychologically resilient.4 Bullying includes assault, tripping, intimidation, rumorspreading and isolation, demands for money, destruction of property, theft of valued possessions, destruction of another's work, and name-calling.In the United States, several other school behaviors (some of which are illegal) are recognized as forms of bullying, such as: sexual harassment (e., repeated exhibitionism, voyeurism, sexual propositioning, and sexual abuse involving unwanted physical contact); ostracism based on perceived sexual orientation; and hazing (e.
, upper-level high school athletes' imposing painfully embarrassing initiation rituals on their new freshmen Not all taunting, teasing and fighting among schoolchildren constitutes bullying.6 "Two persons of approximately the same strength (physical or psychological)"fighting or quarreling" is not bullying.Rather, bullying entails repeated acts by someone perceived as physically or psychologically more powerful.
Related Problems Bullying in schools shares some similarities to the related problems listed below, each of which requires its own analysis and response.
This guide does not directly address these problems: bullying of teachers by students, bullying among inmates in juvenile detention facilities, and bullying as a means of gaining and retaining youth gang members and compelling them to commit crimes.Extent of the Bullying Problem Extensive studies in other countries during the 1980s and 1990s generally found that between 8 and 38 percent of students are bullied with some regularity,† and that between five and nine percent of students bully others with some regularity.
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Chronic victims of bullying, bullied once a week or more, generally constitute between 8 and 20 percent of the student population.7 † A South Carolina study found that 20 percent of students bully others with some regularity (Limber et al.In an English study involving 25 schools and nearly 3,500 students, 9 percent of the students admitted to having bullied others by sexual touching Glover and Cartwright, with Gleeson (1998)Bullying Take Control Patch.In an English study involving 25 schools and nearly 3,500 students, 9 percent of the students admitted to having bullied others by sexual touching Glover and Cartwright, with Gleeson (1998) .
In the United States, fewer studies have been done.A recent study of a nationally representative sample of students found higher levels of bullying in America than in some other countries 6 Jul 2014 - To get at the human problem behind the statistics of workplace bullying, we asked Guardian readers to share with us their experience with a .A recent study of a nationally representative sample of students found higher levels of bullying in America than in some other countries.Thirteen percent of sixth- through 10th-grade students bully, 10 percent reported being victims, and an additional six percent are victim-bullies.8 This study excluded elementary-age students (who often experience high levels of bullying) and did not limit bullying to school grounds.
Several smaller studies from different parts of the country confirm high levels of bullying behaviors, with 10 to 29 percent of students reported to be either bullies or victims.9,†† †† In some of the studies, lack of a common definition of bullying potentially distorts the estimates of the problem (Harachi, Catalano and Hawkins 1999).In addition, in the United States, the lack of a galvanized focus on bullying has resulted in a lack of large-scale school research efforts (such as those in Scandinavia, England, Japan, and Australia).Thus we have only limited insights into the problem of bullying here.Clearly, the percentage of students who are bullies and victims varies by research study, often depending on the definition used, the time frame examined (e.
, ever, frequently, once a week)† and other factors.†† Despite these differences, bullying appears to be widespread in schools in every country studying the problem.††† † For the first time, during the 199798 school year, the United States participated in an international study of young people's health, behavior and lifestyles, which included conducting surveys on school bullying.(European countries have participated in the study since 1982.
) Researchers gathered data on 120,000 students from 28 countries.students reported they had been bullied at school during the current term (see "Annual Report on School Safety.Department of Education report on school crime (based on 1999 data), using a very narrow—and perhaps too limited—definition of bullying than the earlier report, showed that 5 percent of students ages 12 through 18 had reported being bullied at school in the last six months (Kaufman et al.Full text Full text †† The "Annual Report on School Safety," developed in response to a 1997 school shooting in West Paducah, Ky., did not until 1999 contain any data on school bullying.
The 1999 school bullying data are aggregate, useful only in international comparisons, since specific types of bullying are not categorized.The report tracks thefts, weapons, injuries, threats, and physical fights, and some measures of harassment and hate crimes.However, the proportion of incidents that have their roots in bullying is not specified.††† The words "bully" and "bullying" are used in this guide as shorthand to include all of the different forms of bullying behavior.A Threshold Problem: The Reluctance To Report Most students do not report bullying to adults.
Surveys from a variety of countries confirm that many victims and witnesses fail to tell teachers or even parents.10 As a result, teachers may underestimate the extent of bullying in their school and may be able to identify only a portion of the actual bullies.Studies also suggest that children do not believe that most teachers intervene when told about bullying.11 "If the victims are as miserable as the research suggests, why don't they appeal for help? One reason may be that, historically, adults' responses have been so disappointing."12 In a survey of American middle and high school students, "66 percent of victims of bullying believed school professionals responded poorly to the bullying problems that they observed.
"13 Some of the reasons victims gave for not telling include: fearing retaliation, fearing they would not be believed, not wanting to worry their parents, having no confidence that anything would change as a result, thinking their parents' or teacher's advice would make the problem worse, fearing their teacher would tell the bully who told on him or her, and thinking it was worse to be thought of as a snitch.† † Similarly, many sexual assault and domestic violence victims keep their abuse a secret from the police.Police in many jurisdictions see increased reporting of these crimes as an important first step to reducing the potential for future violence, while victims often see it as jeopardizing their safety.Some of the same interests and concerns are found in the area of school bullying.Although most students agree that bullying is wrong, witnesses rarely tell teachers and only infrequently intervene on behalf of the victim.Some students worry that intervening will raise a bully's wrath and make him or her the next target.Also, there may be "diffusion of responsibility"; in other words, students may falsely believe that no one person has responsibility to stop the bullying, absent a teacher or a parent.Student-witnesses appear to have a central role in creating opportunities for bullying.
In a study of bullying in junior and senior high schools in small Midwestern towns, 88 percent of students reported having observed bullying.
14 While some researchers refer to witnesses as "bystanders," others use a more refined description of the witness role.In each bullying act, there is a victim, the ringleader bully, assistant bullies (they join in), reinforcers (they provide an audience or laugh with or encourage the bully), outsiders (they stay away or take no sides), and defenders (they step in, stick up for or comfort the victim).15 Studies suggest only between 10 and 20 percent of noninvolved students provide any real help when another student is victimized.16 Bullying Behavior Despite country and cultural differences, certain similarities by gender, age, location, and type of victimization appear in bullying in the U.Bullying more often takes place at school than on the way to and from school.17 Boy bullies tend to rely on physical aggression more than girl bullies, who often use teasing, rumor-spreading, exclusion, and social isolation.These latter forms of bullying are referred to as "indirect bullying." Physical bullying (a form of "direct bullying") is the least common form of bullying, and verbal bullying (which may be "direct" or "indirect") the most common.
18 Some researchers speculate that girls value social relationships more than boys do, so girl bullies set out to disrupt social relationships with gossip, isolation, silent treatment, and exclusion.Girls tend to bully girls, while boys bully both boys and girls.Consistently, studies indicate that boys are more likely to bully than girls.Some studies show that boys are more often victimized, at least during elementary school years; others show that bullies victimize girls and boys in near equal proportions.In the United Kingdom, two different studies found that almost half the incidents of bullying are one-on-one, while the other half involves additional youngsters.20 Bullying does not end in elementary school.
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Middle school seems to provide ample opportunities for bullying, although at lesser rates.The same is true of the beginning years of high school.Bullying by boys declines substantially after age 15 5 Feb 2015 - Would You Trade Your Paper Books for Digital Versions? Where Should Colleges and Sports Teams Draw the Line in Selling Does Buying and Accumulating More and More Stuff Make Us Happier? Does Class Size Matter? Ever since 1860 students have been given letter grades by their .
Bullying by boys declines substantially after age 15.
Bullying by girls begins declining significantly at age 14.21,† So interventions in middle and early high school years are also important.† Results from several countries, including Australia and England, indicate that as students progress through the middle to upper grades in school, they become more desensitized to bullying Teachers who can get kids to know and trust each other, to empathize with Her son was the victim of a gang of five elementary school bullies who don't have many friends; Tend to be smaller in size and/or physically weaker than the bully 30% of American children are regularly involved in bullying, either as bullies or .† Results from several countries, including Australia and England, indicate that as students progress through the middle to upper grades in school, they become more desensitized to bullying.High school seniors are the exception: they show greater alarm about the problem, just at the point when they will be leaving the environment (O'Moore 1999).Studies in Europe and Scandinavia show that some schools seem to have higher bullying rates than others.
Researchers generally believe that bullying rates are unrelated to school or class size, or to whether a school is in a city or suburb (although one study found that reporting was higher in inner-city schools).Schools in socially disadvantaged areas seem to have higher bullying rates,22 and classes with students with behavioral, emotional or learning problems have more bullies and victims than classes without such students.23 There is a strong belief that the degree of the school principal's involvement (discussed later in this guide) helps determine the level of bullying.There is some evidence that racial bullying occurs in the United States.In a nationally representative study combining data about bullying at and outside of school, 25 percent of students victimized by bullying reported they were belittled about their race or religion (eight percent of those victims were bullied frequently about it).
24 The study also found that black youth reported being bullied less than their Hispanic and white peers.Racial bullying is also a problem in Canada and England."In Toronto, one in eight children overall, and one in three of those in inner-city schools, said that racial bullying often occurred in their schools."25 In four schools—two primary, two secondary—in Liverpool and London, researchers found that Bengali and black students were disproportionately victimized.26 One of the things we do not yet know about bullying is whether certain types of bullying, for instance racial bullying or rumor spreading, are more harmful than other types.
Clearly, much depends on the victim's vulnerability, yet certain types of bullying may have longer-term impact on the victim.It is also unclear what happens when a bully stops bullying.Does another student take that bully's place? Must the victim also change his or her behavior to prevent another student from stepping in? While specific studies on displacement have not been done, it appears that the more comprehensive the school approach to tackling bullying, the less opportunity there is for another bully to rise up.Bullies Many of the European and Scandinavian studies concur that bullies tend to be aggressive, dominant and slightly below average in intelligence and reading ability (by middle school), and most evidence suggests that bullies are at least of average popularity.27 The belief that bullies "are insecure, deep down" is probably incorrect.
28 Bullies do not appear to have much empathy for their victims.29 Young bullies tend to remain bullies, without appropriate intervention."Adolescent bullies tend to become adult bullies, and then tend to have children who are bullies."30 In one study in which researchers followed bullies as they grew up, they found that youth who were bullies at 14 tended to have children who were bullies at 32, suggesting an intergenerational link.31 They also found that " b ullies have some similarities with other types of offenders.
Bullies tend to be drawn disproportionately from lower socioeconomic-status families with poor child-rearing techniques, tend to be impulsive, and tend to be unsuccessful in school."32 In Australia, research shows that bullies have low empathy levels, are generally uncooperative and, based on self-reports, come from dysfunctional families low on love.Their parents tend to frequently criticize them and strictly control them.33 Dutch (and other) researchers have found a correlation between harsh physical punishments such as beatings, strict disciplinarian parents and bullying.
studies, researchers have found higher bullying rates among boys whose parents use physical punishment or violence against them.35 Some researchers suggest that bullies have poor social skills and compensate by bullying.Others suggest that bullies have keen insight into others' mental states and take advantage of that by picking on the emotionally less resilient.36 Along this line, there is some suggestion, currently being explored in research in the United States and elsewhere, that those who bully in the early grades are initially popular and considered leaders.
However, by the third grade, the aggressive behavior is less well-regarded by peers, and those who become popular are those who do not bully.Some research also suggests that " bullies direct aggressive behavior at a variety of targets.As they learn the reactions of their peers, their pool of victims becomes increasingly smaller, and their choice of victims more consistent."37 Thus, bullies ultimately focus on peers who become chronic victims due to how those peers respond to aggression.This indicates that identifying chronic victims early on can be important for effective intervention.
A number of researchers believe that bullying occurs due to a combination of social interactions with parents, peers and teachers.38 The history of the parent-child relationship may contribute to cultivating a bully, and low levels of peer and teacher intervention combine to create opportunities for chronic bullies to thrive (as will be discussed later).Incidents of Bullying Bullying most often occurs where adult supervision is low or absent: schoolyards, cafeterias, bathrooms, hallways "Olweus (1994) found that there is an inverse relationship between the number of supervising adults present and the number of bully/victim incidents."40 The design of less-supervised locations can create opportunities for bullying.For instance, if bullying occurs in a cafeteria while students vie for places in line for food, line management techniques, perhaps drawn from crime prevention through environmental design, could limit the opportunity to bully.
A number of studies have found that bullying also occurs in classrooms and on school buses, although less so than in recess areas and hallways.Upon greater scrutiny, one may find that in certain classrooms, bullying thrives, and in others, it is rare.Classroom bullying may have more to do with the classroom management techniques a teacher uses than with the number of adult supervisors in the room.Other areas also offer opportunities for bullying.The Internet, still relatively new, creates opportunities for cyber-bullies, who can operate anonymously and harm a wide audience.
For example, middle school, high school and college students from Los Angeles' San Fernando Valley area posted website messages that were "full of sexual innuendo aimed at individual students and focusing on topics such as "the weirdest people at your school." The online bulletin boards had been accessed more than 67,000 times in a two-week period , prompting a sense of despair among scores of teenagers disparaged on the site, and frustration among parents and school administrators."One crying student, whose address and phone number were published on the site, was barraged with calls from people calling her a slut and a prostitute.
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41 A psychologist interviewed for the Los Angeles Times remarked on the harm of such Internet bullying: It's not just a few of the kids at school; it's the whole world."Anybody could log on and see what they said about 's written remains, haunting, torturing these kids.
42 The imbalance of power here was not in the bully's size or strength, but in the instrument the bully chose to use, bringing worldwide publication to vicious school gossip Perhaps more than any other school safety problem, bullying affects safety problem on American school campuses.1 Contrary to popular belief, bullying occurs a victim who cannot properly defend him- or herself because of size or strength, In a study of bullying in junior and senior high schools in small Midwestern .42 The imbalance of power here was not in the bully's size or strength, but in the instrument the bully chose to use, bringing worldwide publication to vicious school gossip.
Victims of Bullying Most bullies victimize students in the same class or year, although 30 percent of victims report that the bully was older, and approximately ten percent report that the bully was younger.43 It is unknown the extent to which physical, mental or speech difficulties, eyeglasses, skin color, language, height, weight, hygiene, posture, and dress play a role in victim selection.44 One major study found "the only external be associated with victimization were that victims tended to be smaller and weaker than their peers Best websites to write an paper bullying American High School Writing double spaced.44 One major study found "the only external be associated with victimization were that victims tended to be smaller and weaker than their peers."45 One study found that nonassertive youth who were socially incompetent had an increased likelihood of victimization.
46 Having friends, especially ones who will help protect against bullying, appears to reduce the chances of victimization.47 A Dutch study found that "more than half of those who say they have no friends are being bullied (51%), vs.only 11 percent of those who say they have more than five friends."48 Consequences of Bullying Victims of bullying suffer consequences beyond embarrassment.Some victims experience psychological and/or physical distress, are frequently absent and cannot concentrate on schoolwork.
Research generally shows that victims have low self-esteem, and their victimization can lead to depression49 that can last for years after the victimization.50 In Australia, researchers found that between five and ten percent of students stayed at home to avoid being bullied.Boys and girls who were bullied at least once a week experienced poorer health, more frequently contemplated suicide, and suffered from depression, social dysfunction, anxiety, and insomnia.51 Another study found that adolescent victims, once they are adults, were more likely than nonbullied adults individuals to have children who are victims.52 Chronic Victims of Bullying While many, if not most, students have been bullied at some point in their school career,53 chronic victims receive the brunt of the harm.
It appears that a small subset of six to ten percent of school-age children are chronic victims,54 some bullied as often as several times a week.† There are more chronic victims in elementary school than in middle school, and the pool of chronic victims further shrinks as students enter high school.If a student is a chronic victim at age 15 (high school age), it would not be surprising to find that he or she has suffered through years of victimization.Because of the harm involved, anti-bullying interventions should include a component tailored to counter the abuse chronic victims suffer.† These figures are based on studies in Dublin, Toronto and Sheffield, England (Farrington 1993).
Olweus, however, in his Norwegian studies, found smaller percentages of chronic victims.Several researchers suggest, although there is not agreement, that some chronic victims are "irritating" or "provocative" because their coping strategies include aggressively reacting to the bullying.55 The majority of chronic victims, however, are extremely passive and do not defend themselves.Provocative victims may be particularly difficult to help because their behavior must change substantially to lessen their abuse.
Both provocative and passive chronic victims tend to be anxious and insecure, "which may signal to others that they are easy targets.
"56 They are also less able to control their emotions, and more socially withdrawn.Tragically, chronic victims may return to bullies to try to continue the perceived relationship, which may initiate a new cycle of victimization.Chronic victims often remain victims even after switching to new classes with new students, suggesting that, without other interventions, nothing will change.57 In describing chronic victims, Olweus states: "It does not require much imagination to understand what it is to go through the school years in a state of more or less permanent anxiety and insecurity, and with poor self-esteem.It is not surprising that the victims' devaluation of themselves sometimes becomes so overwhelming that they see suicide as the only possible solution.
"58,† † A handful of chronic victims make the leap from suicidal to homicidal thoughts.Clearly, access to guns is also an issue.In the United States, courts appear open to at least hearing arguments from chronic victims of bullying who allege that schools have a duty to stop persistent victimization.59 It has yet to be decided to what extent schools have an obligation to keep students free from mistreatment by their peers.However, early and sincere attention to the problem of bullying is a school's best defense.
Understanding Your Local Problem The information provided above is only a generalized description of bullying in schools.You must combine this general information with a more specific understanding of your school's problem.Analyzing a school's problem carefully will help you design a more effective response strategy.Police who work with schools may even find that many of the thefts, assaults and batteries, hate crimes, and threats on school campuses (elementary, middle and high school level) are symptoms of bullying and are perpetrated by a small percentage of chronic tormentors.Asking the Right Questions† † The problem of bullying requires extensive surveying of those affected.
It is recommended that police link with local colleges, universities or researchers to prepare and pretest survey instruments.Internationally valid questionnaires, adapted from Olweus' questionnaires, are available to survey students, classroom teachers and other staff involved in managing bullying problems.These have been used as part of a comparative project in Japan, Norway, England, the Netherlands, and the state of Washington, and require written permission for use from Dan Olweus (Research Center for Health Promotion, Christies Gate 13, N-5015, Bergen, Norway).The value of using these questionnaires is the ability to make comparisons among a wide range of other sites.If you use anonymous written surveys of students, it is important to develop some other means for gathering information from students on the specific identities of chronic victims and chronic bullies.
Once gathered, compare this information with that in school records and with teachers' observations to see if there is some agreement.For additional information on bullying surveys, also see the European Commission's TMR Network Project on bullying, involving collaboration among five European countries.The following are some critical questions you should ask in analyzing your particular problem of bullying in schools, even if the answers are not always readily available.The answers to these and other questions will help you guide the school in choosing the most appropriate set of responses later on.The School Is the school aware of the long-term harms associated with bullying and chronic victimization? Is the school aware of the different types of behavior that constitute bullying? Does the school know how often bullying occurs on the campus each year? How does the school's level of bullying compare with that of other schools that have examined bullying? Does the school have a policy to guide teachers and other staff in handling incidents of bullying? How does the school identify bullies? Are records kept? Are they adequate? Are school counselors in the loop? What insights do teachers have about bullying? Can they identify some of the chronic victims and bullies? How are others (e.
, parents, police) brought into the loop, and at what point? Given that most bullying occurs in areas where there are no teachers, is the current method for identifying bullies adequate? Offenders What are the consequences for bullying at the school? Are they applied consistently? Does the bullying stop? How is this determined? Victims and Victimization Does the school know all the victims of bullying? How does the school identify victims? Given that most victims and witnesses do not report, is the current system for identifying victims adequate? Who are the chronic victims? What has the school done to protect them? What are the most common forms of bullying victimization? Does the school policy address them? Does the school have a policy regarding the reporting of bullying and the role of bystanders? Locations Where Bullying Occurs When does bullying occur at those locations? Are those who supervise the locations during those times trained to identify and appropriately handle bullying incidents? Has the school made changes to the locations to minimize bullying opportunities? Measuring Your Effectiveness before implementing responses, to determine how serious the problem is, and after implementing them, to determine whether they have been effective.Measurement allows school staff to determine to what degree their efforts have succeeded, and suggests how they might modify their responses if they are not producing the intended results.
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For more detailed guidance on measuring effectiveness, see the companion guide to this series, Assessing Responses to Problems: An Introductory Guide for Police Problem-Solvers.The following potentially useful measures of the effectiveness of responses to bullying should be taken using before-andafter surveys: percentage of victims, by type of bullying; number of repeat victims; percentage of bullying incidents reported to parents or authorities; number of students who are knowledgeable about bullying and how they should respond; percentage of students who witness bullying who report it to teachers or parents; willingness of students to step in and help someone being bullied; attendance, tardiness, behavior, and disciplinary reports of chronic victims and bullies; and bullying rates at specific bullying hot spots (e.
Responses to the Problem of Bullying in Schools Your analysis of your local problem should give you a better understanding of, among other things, the extent of the problem, including the level of bullying and the identification of bullying hot spots, chronic victims and chronic offenders School bullying is a type of bullying that occurs in any educational setting. Bullying without Bullying can have a wide spectrum of effects on a student including anger, of bullying in first and second level schools conducted by Trinity College Dublin In a U.S. study of 5,621 students ages 12–18, 64% of the students had .Responses to the Problem of Bullying in Schools Your analysis of your local problem should give you a better understanding of, among other things, the extent of the problem, including the level of bullying and the identification of bullying hot spots, chronic victims and chronic offenders.
Outlined below are approaches used to address bullying, along with information about their effectiveness.General Requirements for an Effective Strategy To Counter Bullying in Schools Enlisting the school principal's commitment and involvement.
The school principal's commitment to and involvement in addressing school bullying are key.In fact, in comparing schools with high and low bullying rates, some research suggests that a principal's investment in preventing and controlling bullying contributes to low rates.60 A police officer's knowledge of and interest in the problem may serve to convince a principal to invest the time and energy to collaboratively and comprehensively tackle it.Using a multifaceted, comprehensive approach.A multifaceted, comprehensive approach is more effective than one that focuses on only one or two aspects of school bullying.
A multifaceted, comprehensive approach includes: establishing a schoolwide policy that addresses indirect bullying (e., rumor spreading, isolation, social exclusion), which is more hidden, as well as direct bullying (e., physical aggression); providing guidelines for teachers, other staff and students (including witnesses) on specific actions to take if bullying occurs; educating and involving parents so they understand the problem, recognize its signs and intervene appropriately; adopting specific strategies to deal with individual bullies and victims, including meeting with their parents; encouraging students to report known bullying; developing a comprehensive reporting system to track bullying and the interventions used with specific bullies and victims; encouraging students to be helpful to classmates who may be bullied; developing tailored strategies to counter bullying in specific school hot spots, using environmental redesign, increased supervision (e.
, by teachers, other staff members, parents, volunteers) or technological monitoring equipment; and conducting post-intervention surveys to assess the strategies' impact on school bullying.Specific Responses To Reduce Bullying in Schools Using the "whole-school" approach.† Olweus developed and tested the whole-school approach in Scandinavia.
It contains elements listed under requirement 1 and 2 above (school principal's involvement and the multi-faceted, comprehensive approach) and it has undergone repeated evaluations in other countries, including the United States, with a range of successful results, including a 50 percent reduction in bullying in 42 schools in one area of Norway.
However, most other applications of this approach achieve improvements in the 20 to 30 percent range, which is significant.61 In some studies, the results are achieved primarily in the second year.This approach can reduce the level of bullying and other antisocial behavior, such as vandalism, fighting, theft, and truancy, and improve the "social climate," order and discipline in class.† Some research refers to the wholeschool approach as the "schoolwide" approach or "organizational" approach.The three are identical, requiring interventions at the school, class and individual level.
The whole-school approach is somewhat easier to implement in elementary schools, due to their size and structure.Students in these schools generally interact with only one or two teachers a year, guaranteeing higher levels of consistent messages from teachers to students.62 However, significant gains can also be achieved in middle and high schools Research tells us that the whole-school approach requires renewed effort each year (reinforcing anti-bullying strategies with returning students, their parents and school staff), which may be at odds with a school's, or even a police department's, concern about tackling the latest hot topic.However, onetime efforts will be less effective.Thus, schools must prepare themselves to maintain momentum for anti-bullying initiatives year after year.
Increasing student reporting of bullying.To address the problem of students' resistance to reporting bullying, some schools have set up a bully hot line.One in England received thousands of calls shortly after it was established.Some schools use a "bully box"; students drop a note in the box to alert teachers and administrators about problem bullies.Other approaches to increase reporting are also used.
In one Kentucky town, a police officer, keen to increase reporting, developed a short in-class segment titled "Hero vs.Snitch," in which he discussed why reporting is heroic behavior, not tattling.Developing activities in less-supervised areas., schoolyards, lunchrooms), trained supervisors spot bullying and initiate activities that limit opportunities for it.Such activities must be of interest to bullies and curb their behavior.Reducing the amount of time students can spend less supervised.Since much bullying occurs during lesssupervised time (e., recess, lunch breaks, class changes), reducing the amount of time available to students can reduce the amount of bullying.Staggering recess, lunch and/or class-release times.This approach minimizes the number of bullies and victims present at one time, so supervisors have less trouble spotting bullying.However, supervisors must be mindful that most bullies are in the same grade as their victims.Monitoring areas where bullying can be expected (e.
Adult monitoring can increase the risk that bullies get caught, but may require increased staffing or trained volunteers.Assigning bullies to a particular location or to particular chores during release times.This approach separates bullies from their intended victims.
Some teachers give bullies constructive tasks to occupy them during release times.Careful victim monitoring is required to ensure that bullies do not pick on victims at other times.Posting classroom signs prohibiting bullying and listing the consequences for it.This puts would-be bullies on notice and outlines the risks they take.Teachers must consistently enforce the rules for them to have meaning.
Schools should post signs in each classroom and apply ageappropriate penalties.Providing teachers with effective classroom management training.
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To address bullying, schools should ensure that all their teachers have effective classroom management training.Since research suggests that classes containing students with behavioral, emotional or learning problems have more bullies and victims, teachers in those classes may require additional tailored training in spotting and handling bullying.Having high-level school administrators inform late-enrolling students about the school's bullying policy 11 Sep 2017 - Pupils transfer from infant schools to junior schools in the year after their 7th birthday (7+). Norfolk University Technical College offers technically orientated education for have been offered or for telling us you want to appeal. www.admissionsonline.norfolk.gov.uk or complete a paper application..
Having high-level school administrators inform late-enrolling students about the school's bullying policy.
This removes any excuse new students have for bullying, and stresses the importance the school places on countering it.Responses With Limited Effectiveness Training students in conflict resolution and peer mediation.A number of schools adopt conflict resolution and peer mediation training to address bullying (and other) problems Best website to order a paper bullying professional American 96 pages / 26400 words 10 days Standard.A number of schools adopt conflict resolution and peer mediation training to address bullying (and other) problems."Because bullying involves harassment by powerful children of children with less power (rather than a conflict between peers of relatively equal status), common conflictresolution strategies or mediation may not be effective.
"64 In fact, they may actually further victimize a child.
65 The training often offers too little for those students who really need it, and too much for those who already have the skills.The whole-school approach, in contrast, does not assume that students alone can solve the bullying problem; interventions at all levels are required: school, class, individual, teacher, parent, and peer.† † In terms of peer mediation, one Flemish study found that elementaryand many middle school-age students lack confidence in successfully intervening (Stevens, Van Oost and De Bourdeaudhuij 2000).In another study, researchers found that only small numbers of students were willing to go to peer-support training, and that it was harder to get boys or male teachers involved (Naylor and Cowie 1999).In one study in Australia, however, Peterson and Rigby (1999) found a tremendous number of peer interventions, as part of a whole-school approach.
The result was a modest decline in reported bullying of students in their first year of high school, but not in the other years.The authors still found this significant because the transition year into high school can be intense for bullying.Some schools, in their rush to "do something" about bullying, adopt a "zero tolerance" policy against it, without an in-depth analysis of their specific problem or the comprehensive involvement of administrators, teachers, other staff, student-witnesses, parents, bullies, and victims at the school, class, and individual level.This approach may result in a high level of suspensions without full comprehension of how behavior needs to and can be changed.
It does not solve the problem of the bully, who typically spends more unsupervised time in the home or community if suspended or expelled.Zero tolerance may also ultimately have a chilling effect on reporting of bullying.Some schools provide self-esteem training for bullies.This may be misdirected: research suggests that most bullies do not lack in self-esteem.
66 Encouraging victims to simply "stand up"to bullies.Without adequate support or adult involvement this strategy may be harmful and physically dangerous for a victim of bullying.67 Sample Brochure Educating Parents About School Bullying † This brochure is copied (with minor changes) with the permission of its author, Susan Limber, Clemson University, Institute on Family and Neighborhood Life.This particular brochure is most appropriate for parents of elementary or middle school students.The School District is collaborating with the Police Department to implement the Bullying Prevention Program to address bullying among children in grades to .
What is bullying? Bullying occurs when one child or group of children repeatedly hurts another child through actions or words.Bullying may involve physical aggression, such as fighting, shoving or kicking; verbal aggression, such as name-calling; or more subtle aggression, such as socially isolating a child.Why focus on bullying? All of us are concerned about the levels of violence among young people in our communities and schools.Studies have shown that 60 percent of children identified as bullies in middle school go on to have arrest records.We need to address these children's behavioral problems at an early age, before they become even more serious.
In addition, victims of bullies may have problems with depression, poor school attendance and low self-esteem.It is important to help create a school environment where all children feel safe and can learn to the best of their abilities.What does this program involve? The Bullying Prevention Program involves the total effort of all school staff (teachers, principals, guidance counselors, cafeteria workers, custodians, bus drivers, etc.), as well as students, parents and other community members, to reduce bullying.The school's efforts will include: identifying bullies and their victims, to address individual problems and needs; establishing schoolwide rules and applying consistent sanctions against bullies; holding regular classroom meetings to discuss bullying with children; increasing supervision of children at school; rewarding children for good social behaviors; holding schoolwide assemblies on bullying; and using videos, books and other resources on bullying.
Will this program help? Studies have shown that the Bullying Prevention Program can be very effective in reducing bullying and related antisocial behavior among schoolchildren.In places where this program has been used, bullying has been reduced by 25 to 50 percent.Fighting, vandalizing, drinking, and other antisocial behaviors also have decreased, and children and school personnel involved in the program have reported that they felt more positive about school.How can parents get involved? Through mailings, PTA meetings and other school events, we hope to inform you about the Bullying Prevention Program and the many problems associated with bullying.We will discuss ways to determine whether your children may be bullies or victims of bullying, and we will suggest strategies and resources for you.
We will encourage you to become involved in a variety of creative projects developed by your school to raise awareness of the problems of violence and of efforts to reduce bullying at school and in the community.How can I tell if my child is being bullied? Your child may be the victim of bullying if he or she: comes home from school with torn or dirty clothing, or damaged books; has cuts, bruises or scratches; has few, if any, friends to play with; seems afraid to go to school, or complains of headaches or stomach pains; doesn't sleep well or has bad dreams; loses interest in schoolwork; is anxious or has poor self-esteem; and/or is quiet, sensitive or passive.If your child shows several of these warning signs, it's possible he or she is being bullied.You may want to talk with your child to find out what is troubling him or her, and schedule a conference to discuss your concerns with school staff.How can I tell if my child is bullying others? Your child may be bullying others if he or she: teases, threatens or kicks other children; is hot-tempered or impulsive, or has a hard time following rules; is aggressive toward adults; has been involved in other antisocial behavior, such as vandalism or theft.
If your child shows several of these warning signs, it's possible that he or she is bullying others.You may want to spend some extra time talking with your child about his or her behavior, and schedule a conference to talk about the issue with school staff.For more information about the Bullying Prevention Program, please contact .Additional Resources Additional reports on school crime and safety are available from the National Center for Education Statistics website at .Information about the Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence model Bullying Prevention Program can be found at /cspv/blueprints/model/programs/ Stop Bullying Now! This website focuses on reducing school bullying among the 'tweens population (the middle school years) with excellent resources for both teachers and children.
Found at: / ?Area=additionalresources Abstracts of publications that have appeared since this guide was written Bullying prevention is crime prevention.This report examines the nature and extent of bullying in the U.
, and identifies effective anti-bullying/anti-aggression prevention programs.
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Of children in sixth through tenth grade, more than 3.2 million (nearly one in six) are victims of bullying each year, while 3.Preventing kids from becoming bullies and intervening to stop bullying, however, can not only protect children from the pain that bullying inflicts immediately, but can protect all of us from crime later on School bullying Wikipedia.Preventing kids from becoming bullies and intervening to stop bullying, however, can not only protect children from the pain that bullying inflicts immediately, but can protect all of us from crime later on.
Whereas programs have been developed that can cut bullying and future arrests by as much as fifty percent, these programs need to be implemented in America's schools.In particular, three models have been rigorously tested and proven highly effective: the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT), and The Incredible Years.Whereas these programs are relatively inexpensive, especially considering the results they deliver, they should also be considered investments, which will more than pay for themselves through reduced school violence, fewer placements for special education, fewer suicides and less future crime When you need to talk to someone, your school counselor (sometimes called a died as well as advise you on taking the right classes to get into your dream college. give you tips on standing up for yourself if you're being bullied, managing stress, Depending on the size of your school, these people may include school .Whereas these programs are relatively inexpensive, especially considering the results they deliver, they should also be considered investments, which will more than pay for themselves through reduced school violence, fewer placements for special education, fewer suicides and less future crime.Inaction now guarantees that more students and ordinary citizens will become victims of bullying and violence, hence it is time to ensure that every school in America has an effective anti-bullying program.
The Nature and Extent of Bullying at School.Journal of School Health, 73(5):173-180.In elementary schools, the prevalence of bullying ranges from 11.
study of elementary students found that 19% were bullied.
Bullying behavior declines as students progress through the grades.School bullying is associated with numerous physical, mental, and social detriments.A relationship also exists between student bullying behavior and school issues such as academic achievement, school bonding, and absenteeism.Prevention of school bullying should become a priority issue for schools.The most effective methods of bullying reduction involve a whole school approach.
This method includes assessing the problem, planning school conference days, providing better supervision at recess, forming a bullying prevention coordinating group, encouraging parent-teacher meetings, establishing classroom rules against bullying, holding classroom meetings about bullying, requiring talks with the bullies and the victims, and scheduling talks with the parents of involved students.Summary of Responses The table below summarizes the responses to bullying in schools, the mechanism by which they are intended to work, the conditions under which they ought to work best, and some factors you should consider before implementing a particular response.It is critical that you tailor responses to local circumstances, and that you can justify each response based on reliable analysis.In most cases, an effective strategy will involve implementing several different responses.Law enforcement responses alone are seldom effective in reducing or solving the problem.
General Requirements for an Effective Strategy To Counter Bullying in Schools # 8 Nansel et al.9 Perry, Kusel and Perry (1988); Harachi, Catalano and Hawkins (1999), citing Bosworth, Espelage, DuBay, Dahlberg, and Daytner (1996); Hoover, Oliver and Hazler (1992); Olweus and Limber (1999), citing Melton, Limber, Cunningham, Osgood, Cambers, Flerx, Henggeler, and Nation (1998).10 Rigby and Slee (1999); Smith, Morita, Junger-Tas, Olweus, Catalano and Slee (1999).
11 Farrington (1993), citing Whitney and Smith (1991).
13 Hoover, Oliver and Hazler (1992); Australian students reported similarly Rigby (1996) .Full Text 14 Limber (1998), citing Hazler, Hoover and Oliver (1991).15 Salmivalli (1999); also see Olweus and Limber (1999).16 Salmivalli (1999); Stevens, Van Oost and De Bourdeaudhuij (2000), citing Pepler (1994).
20 Rigby and Slee (1999); Ortega and Lera (2000).21 Farrington (1993), citing Stephenson and Smith (1991), and Whitney and Smith (1991).22 Farrington (1993), citing Stephenson and Smith (1991), and Whitney and Smith (1991).23 Farrington (1993), citing Zeigler and Rosenstein-Manner ( 1991), and Stephenson and Smith (1991).25 Farrington (1993), citing Ziegler and Rosenstein-Manner (1991).35 Harachi, Catalano and Hawkins (1999).36 See generally Smith and Brain (2000) for a discussion of the research on this topic.
37 See Harachi, Catalano and Hawkins (1999) for a discussion of these different avenues of recent bullying research.38 Stevens, De Bourdeaudhuij and Van Oost (2000).39 Farrington (1993); Zeigler and Rosenstein-Manner (1991).42 Banks, Kaplan and Groves (2001), quoting therapist Veronica Thomas.43 Farrington (1993), citing Whitney and Smith (1991).44 Farrington (1993); also see Bernstein and Watson (1997), citing Olweus (1978); Perry, Kusel and Perry (1988).45 Bernstein and Watson (1997), citing Olweus (1978).48 Junger-Tas and Van Kesteren (1999).60 Farrington (1993), citing Stephenson and Smith (1991); for similar conclusions, also see Roland (2000).61 Olweus and Limber (1999); Pitts and Smith (1996); also see the evaluation by The Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.
Full Text Full text 62 Stevens, De Bourdeaudhuij and Van Oost (2000); Stevens found zero outcomes in secondary schools.63 Pitts and Smith (1996); but see Stevens, De Bourdeauhuij and Van Oost (2000).65 Personal correspondence from Sue Limber to the author, November 9, 2001.
66 Personal correspondence from Sue Limber to the author, November 9, 2001.67 Personal correspondence from Sue Limber to the author, November 9, 2001."Web Site Where Students Slung Vicious Gossip Is Shut Down."Bullies and Their Victims: Understanding a Pervasive Problem in the Schools." School Psychology Review 23(2):165-174.
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"Children Who Are Targets of Bullying: A Victim Pattern." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 12(4):483-498."A Systemic Counseling Approach to the Problem of Bullying Write my college bullying paper double spaced 101 pages / 27775 words Academic Bluebook."A Systemic Counseling Approach to the Problem of Bullying.
" Elementary School Guidance and Counseling 31(4):310-335."Aggression and Its Correlates Over 22 Years.), Childhood Aggression and Violence: Sources of Influence, Prevention and Control."TMR Network Project: Nature and Prevention of Bullying chaos.es/report/should-i-order-a-anatomy-report-87-pages-23925-words-bluebook-platinum-online."TMR Network Project: Nature and Prevention of Bullying.), Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, Vol.
Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.Towards Bully-Free Schools: Interventions in Action.Buckingham, England: Open University Press.), The Nature of School Bullying: A Cross-National Perspective."Individual Risk and Social Risk as Interacting Determinants of Victimization in the Peer Group." Developmental Psychology 33(6):1032-1039.Preventing School Bullying: Things You Can Do.
London: Home Office, Police Research Group."Bullying: Perceptions of Adolescent Victims in the Midwestern USA." School Psychology y International 13(1):5-16.Bullying and Delinquency in a Dutch School Population.The Hague, Netherlands: Kugler Publications."Bullying Among School Children in the United States.), Contemporary Studies in Sociology, Vol."Bullying Behaviors Among US Youth: Prevalence and Association With Psychosocial Adjustment." Journal of the American Medical Association 285(16):2094-2100."The Effectiveness of Peer Support Systems in Challenging School Bullying: The Perspectives and Experiences of Teachers and Pupils."Bullying Among Schoolchildren: Intervention and Prevention.), Aggression and Violence Throughout the Life Span.: Institute of Behavioral Science, Regents of the University of Colorado."Critical Issues for Teacher Training To Counter Bullying and Victimisation in Ireland."Countering Bullying at an Australian Secondary School, With Students as Helpers."Preventing Peer Victimisation in Schools.), International Victimology: Selected Papers From the Eighth International Symposium.
Griffith, Australia: Australian Institute of Criminology.), The Nature of School Bullying: A Cross-National Perspective."Bullying in School: Three National Innovations in Norwegian Schools in 15 Years."The Emergence of Chronic Peer Victimization in Boys' Play Groups.School Bullying: Insights and Perspectives.The Nature of School Bullying: A CrossNational Perspective."Bullying in Flemish Schools: An Evaluation of AntiBullying Intervention in Primary and Secondary Schools." British Journal of Educational Psychology y 70:195-210."The Effects of an Anti-Bullying Intervention Programme on Peers' Attitudes and Behaviour.Preventing Bullying: A Manual for Schools and Communities.Toronto: Board of Education Related POP Projects Important! The quality and focus of these submissions vary considerably.With the exception of those submissions selected as winners or finalists, these documents are unedited and are reproduced in the condition in which they were submitted.They may nevertheless contain useful information or may report innovative projects.Bullyproof, Cleveland Police Department (Middlesbrough, UK), 1999 Operation Mullion Tilley Award Finalist , Hampshire Constabulary, 2006 When a California teacher caught a class bully in the act of punching another student, she immediately sent the bully to the principal’s office.
The bully’s punishment was a one-day suspension which he spent sitting in the school office, where other students could see him.The student learned his lesson and never bullied again, and the bully’s victim learned that his school was a safe place where bullying and violence would not be tolerated.The best way to combat bullying, says the mother whose child was the victim of this bully, is having a school community where the message is clear: Bullying simply is not tolerated.Teachers, students and administrators are all very aware of the policy.If an incident occurs, the teachers respond immediately.
The students know that the behavior is unacceptable, that there are trusted adults they can confide in and that there will be consequences.Advertisement Debra Chasnoff, a San Francisco-based filmmaker who has produced a video for schools in which bullies and the bullied tell their stories, advocates a kinder, gentler approach.“Just focusing on tough discipline isn’t enough.
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Schools should place a priority on building community.Teachers who can get kids to know and trust each other, to empathize with each other, will have fewer problems in the classroom and on the playground.
You are less likely to turn on someone you know as a fellow human being 5 Mar 2013 - told us. Here are your stories about bullying in school. We asked you to tell us your experiences and we were inundated with responses. Here are I never write or ring into places or papers, but this issue is so serious. Am lucky to love the college that I go to and have a good support around me..You are less likely to turn on someone you know as a fellow human being.
” What are the signs that my child is being bullied? Look for: Showing little or no empathy for others What are the long-term effects of bullying? Melissa Smith, a California mother, recounts what can happen when bullying is not stopped.Her son was the victim of a gang of five elementary school bullies who continually verbally abused him.For four months her son tried to ignore them and always walked away.But her son continues to suffer from a lack of self-esteem, has had trouble making friends, and years after the bullying incident, is now in counseling.Bullying, commonly thought to be a problem for boys, is just as prevalent among girls.It often takes the form of intentional verbal abuse or malicious gossip by several girls ganging up on one girl.Jessica, an overweight sixth grader in Canada, recounts the torment of being continually teased by three girls she previously considered her best friends: “How many times do you feel so bad that you want to change schools, leave all the actual friends that you do have or just lock yourself in a room forever?” she asks as she recounts her story of being bullied.
Characteristics of bullies May be the victim of aggressive behavior or abuse at home Receive inconsistent discipline and/or poor supervision at home Tend to be aggressive, self-confident and lacking in empathy Characteristics of victims Tend to be smaller in size and/or physically weaker than the bully The problem of bullying is widespread and is often cited as a contributing factor in the recent cases of school shootings.
According to the National Resource Center for Safe Schools in Portland, Oregon, 30% of American children are regularly involved in bullying, either as bullies or victims, and approximately 15% are “severely traumatized or distressed” as a result of encounters with bullies.Researchers agree that children who bully in childhood are more likely to become violent adults and engage in criminal behavior; victims of bullies often suffer from anxiety, low self-esteem and depression as they grow into adulthood.When is it teasing and when is it bullying? One of the common myths about bullying is that it is just a normal part of childhood.Everyone gets teased now and then without a great deal of harm, but bullying, characterized by repeated, intentionally hurtful acts, can have long-term consequences for the bully and the victim.These acts can be physical, verbal, emotional or sexual, and there is generally an imbalance of power between the bully and the victim.
Statistics on bullying According to Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2007, a report issued by the Justice Department and the Department of Education, in 2005: 28% of students, 12- to 18-years-old, reported that they had been bullied sometime in the prior six months.11% reported that someone at school had used hate-related words against them.9% were bullied by being pushed, tripped or spit upon.Other studies indicate that: 60% of students identified as bullies in grades 6 to 9 had at least one criminal conviction by age 24.Bullies are at even greater risk of suicide than their targets.
About two-thirds of students involved in school shootings say they had felt persecuted, bullied or threatened by others.School-based intervention programs can reduce bullying by 30% to 50%.What can I do about bullying? The most important thing you can do is listen to your child.Ask about how things are going at school.Ask if your child has had any experience with bullies or has seen other children experience bullying.
Often children are too embarrassed or scared to bring up the topic on their own.You can bring it up by discussing sympathy and respect for others, asking such questions as “Why do you think she said those hurtful things?” or “How do you think it feels to be bullied?” You’ll want to have a discussion about how to handle bullying situations and warn your child never to resort to violence, even as a reaction to a bully.Stan Davis, a Maine school guidance counselor and trainer in bullying prevention, advises encouraging the majority of students who are not victims or bullies to stand up to bullies, to ask adults for help and to reach out as friends to isolated students.You may be tempted to intervene by confronting the bully and his parent yourself, but most experts advise against doing so.If you confront the bully, you will only verify for him that your child is a weakling.
Many bullies come from homes lacking in parental involvement, so confronting the parent might not prove productive.Besides, it will probably be difficult for you to talk to the bully’s parent in a calm and rational manner and that might only exacerbate the problem.Your instincts may tell you to let the child learn to handle the situation himself, but in actuality he may need an adult (either a teacher or a parent) to intervene when bullying takes place because of the imbalance of power.Alert your child’s teacher or principal when bullying occurs and work with your school to make sure the atmosphere is safe and that there is effective monitoring.Ask to be notified should your child be involved in a bullying incident.
To really know what goes on at school and to help create a positive atmosphere, volunteer to be a playground supervisor or a classroom assistant.Four myths about bullying Bullying is just a normal part of childhood.Bullies will stop if you just ignore them.Victims need to learn to stand up for themselves.What should my child’s school be doing to address bullying? Look for a positive, supportive atmosphere where students know that bullying will not be tolerated, where students know they can go to adults for help, and where there are clear consequences for bullying.
An ongoing commitment to promoting this kind of school environment is key.An effective technique used in many schools is to have each class develop its own code of conduct.Here’s the code of conduct that one class wrote: We don’t want any hitting, punching or kicking.We don’t want any name-calling or put-downs.We include everyone when we do group activities.
Teachers and staff should be on the alert and should intervene when they see bullying occur.They should be aware that bullies often try to operate in places that are not in direct public view, such as school bathrooms or locker rooms.Some schools hold assemblies to present the topic of bullying, but these one-shot efforts have not been proven to be as effective as a consistent, ongoing school-wide effort to combat bullying.